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Artificial upwelling for the purpose of increasing biological productivity has its greatest potential in the permanently stratified regions of the tropical and subtropical oceans, where low supply of nutrient-rich deep water to the sun-lit surface layer severely limits primary production. Ocean artUp will investigate the biological and biogeochemical responses to deep-water supply into these nutrient-poor environments in order to establish a knowledge base for a comprehensive assessment of the feasibility, effectiveness, associated risks and potential side effects of artificial upwelling.

3 Mesocosms Graphic Sketch of three experimental units of the Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS) which will be employed for in situ experiments involving multiple trophic levels.

In-Shore Mesocosms Medium-scale experiment covering the base of the food web in the harbour of Taliarte, Gran Canaria.

Wave Pump Prototype Prototype wave pump loaded on R/V PLOCAN 1 for field testing.

This will be achieved through a combination of approaches, from (1) well-controlled medium-scale experiments at the base of the foodweb, to (2) large-scale in situ experiments involving multiple trophic levels up to small pelagic fish, and (3) open system field applications. These will be combined with numerical simulations using ecosystem-biogeochemical models.